|An Analysis of Etiopathogenesis of Black Urine as viewed by Unani Medicine and Conventional Medicine|
Uroscopy is the macroscopic examination of urine sample. It can be traced back 6,000 years ago in ancient Sumerian and Babylonian texts.Greco-Arab physicians discussed in detail about diagnosis of diseases through urine examination. They recommended guidelines to be followed prior to the uroscopy. There are eight parameters by which uroscopist is able to diagnose diseases; color, texture, clearness, sediments, quantity, odor and foam of urine. They divided the color of urine into 5 types, namely; Asfar (yellow), Ahmar (red), Akhzar (green), Asvad (black), and Abyaz (white). In our study we focus on etiopathogenesis of Bawl-e-Asvad (black urine). Unani scholars believed that black urine is an indicator of excessive oxidation, intense cold, extinction of the innate heat, crisis and expulsion of atrabilious superfluities (Fuzlat-e-Saudavia) by the physis. In conventional medicine, intrinsic pigments, malignant melanoma, alkaptonuria, several medications and poisoning are responsible for production of black urine. Etiopathogenesis of black urine in Unani medicine as well as conventional medicine is analyzed in this paper.
Keywords: Uroscopy, Bawl-e-Asvad,Unani medicine, Conventional medicine